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Phytochrome Switching Long Day Plants

Research and Other Documents Relevant to Grow Lighting and Horticulture.


To better understand the needs of plants, it is helpful to visit scientific research documents, and other useful bits of knowledge.

Pursuit of knowledge can lead to new techniques and products.

Products properly informed by Scientific principals will display superior performance.

Techniques can be emplyed to improve horicultural productivity, improve the smell, taste and color of foods and ornamental crops , increased yields and the overall health and quality. Implementation can be useful in the Greenhouse, Outdoors and in the Greenhouse.

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Long Day Plant (Short Night) Related:

  • The relationship between red and far-red light on flowering of the long-day plant, Lemna gibba. Yoshio Ishiguri and Yoshiharu Oda.  Lemna gibba, a long-day duckweed, can be induced to flower when the 10 hr white photoperiod is extended with red or far-red light. The 10 hr red photoperiod is also effective in inducing flowering when followed by a far-red extension, but a red extension is ineffective.
  • Red Light Affects Flowering Under Long Days in a Short-day Strawberry Cultivar. Fumiomi Takeda and D. Michael Glenn USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, and Gary W. Stutte Space Life Sciences Laboratory, Dvnanzac Corporation, Kennedy Space Center, FL.
  • Photoperiodism: Many angiosperms flower at about the same time every year. This occurs even though they may have started growing at different times. Their flowering is a response to the changing length of day and night as the season progresses. The phenomenon is called photoperiodism. It helps promote cross pollination.
  • Phytochrome Regulation of Flowering in the Long-Day Plant, Hyoscyamus niger. Plant Physiol. 1982 September; 70(3): 898–900. PMCID: PMC1065791. Robert J. Downs and Judith F. Thomas. A daylength extension with incandescent light is more effective in promoting flowering of long-day plants like Hyoscyamus niger than fluorescent light. A low phytochrome photoequilibrium (Pfr/Ptot), attained by a far-red irradiation at the close of long days under fluorescent light, also promotes flowering.
    • Kinetics and time dependence of the effect of far red light on the photoperiodic induction of flowering in wintex barley. Deitzer GF, Hayes R, Jabben M. Plant Physiol. 1979 Dec;64(6):1015-21. Source Smithsonian Institution, Radiation Biology Laboratory. Flowering in the long day plant Hordeum vulgare L. var. Wintex barley was enhanced by the addition of far red light to the main light portion of the photoperiod.

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